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IELTS Prediction 1

Before taking the test, read the following instructions and fill in an identification form afterward.
The test is divided into four sections: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Each section or part of a section begins with a set of special directions that includes sample questions and answers. It is important to read these directions so you will understand exactly what you are to do before you start to work on the section or part.
Some questions may be harder than others, but try to answer everyone. If you are not sure of the correct answer to a question, make the best guess you can and go on to the next question. It is to your advantage to answer every question, even if you have to guess.
As you are taking the practice test, work rapidly but carefully. Do not spend too much time on any single question. You can use scratch paper for taking notes in the listening section, and do not write or make any marks in the test section of your book.

Proceed with the identification form. Input the password given by our Admin. Then, click “Start” button to continue.

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LISTENING SECTION

PART 1

Questions 1–6. Number your answers in the text box (e.g., 1. main, 2. important, and so on)

HIRING A PUBLIC ROOM

Room and cost

  • the Main Hall – seats 200
  • the __________ (1) Room – seats 100
  • Cost of Main Hall for Saturday evening: £ __________ (2) + £250 deposit ( __________ (3) payment is required)
  • Cost includes use of tables and chairs and also __________ (4)
  • Additional charge for use of the kitchen: £25

Before the event

  • Will need a __________ (5) license
  • Need to contact caretaker (Mr Evans) in advance to arrange __________ (6)

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PART 1

Question 7-10. Number your answers in the text box (e.g., 1. main, 2. important, and so on)

During the event

  • The building is no smoking
  • The band should use the __________ (7) door at the back
  • Don’t touch the system that controls the volume
  • For microphones, contact the caretaker

After the event

  • Need to know the __________ (8) for the cleaning cupboard
  • The __________ (9) must be washed and rubbish placed in black bags
  • All __________ (10) must be taken down
  • Chairs and tables must be piled up

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PART 2

Questions 11–15. Click the button to choose the best answer

Choose the correct letter A, B, or C.

 

Theatre trip to Munich

11. When the group meet at the airport, they will have

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12. The group will be met at Munich Airport by

 

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13. How much will they pay per night for a double room at the hotel?

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14. What type of restaurant will they go to on Tuesday evening?

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15. Who will they meet on Wednesday afternoon?

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Questions 16–20. Number your answers in the text box (e.g., 1. A, 2. B, and so on)

Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the correct letter, A–G, next to Questions 16–20. 

Comments

A The playwright will be present.

B The play was written to celebrate an anniversary.

C The play will be performed inside a historic building.

D The play will be accompanied by live music.

E The play will be performed outdoors.

F The play will be performed for the first time.

G The performance will be attended by officials from the town.

 

Days

16. Wednesday __________

17. Thursday __________

18. Friday __________

19. Saturday __________

20. Monday __________

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PART 3

Questions 21–25. Click the button to choose the best answer

Choose the correct letter A, B, or C.

21. Why is Jack interested in investigating seed germination?

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22. Jack and Emma agree the main advantage of their present experiment is that it can be

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23. What do they decide to check with their tutor?

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24. They agree that Graves’ book on seed germination is disappointing because

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25. What does Jack say about the article on seed germination by Lee Hall?

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Questions 26–30. Number your answers in the text box (e.g., 1. A, 2. B, and so on)

Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the correct letter, A–H, next to Questions 26–30. Write your answers as A/B/C/D to the questions in order.

 

A container

B soil

C weight

D condition

E height

F colour

G types

H depths

 

Stages in the experiment

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PART 4

Questions 31–40. Number your answers in the text box (e.g., 1. main, 2. important, and so on)

Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer. Prepare a paper to note your answers before you copy them to the text box.

Stoicism

Stoicism is still relevant today because of its __________ (31) appeal.

Ancient Stoics

  • Stoicism was founded over 2,000 years ago in Greece.
  • The Stoics’ ideas are surprisingly well known, despite not being intended for __________ (32) .

Stoic principles

  • Happiness could be achieved by leading a virtuous life.
  • Controlling emotions was essential.
  • Epictetus said that external events cannot be controlled but the __________ (33) people make in response can be controlled.
  • A Stoic is someone who has a different view on experiences which others would consider as __________ (34) .

The influence of Stoicism

  • George Washington organised a __________ (35) about Cato to motivate his men.
  • The French artist Delacroix was a Stoic.
  • Adam Smith’s ideas on __________ (36) were influenced by Stoicism.
  • Some of today’s political leaders are inspired by the Stoics.
  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
  • the treatment for __________ (37) is based on ideas from Stoicism
  • people learn to base their thinking on __________ (38)
  • In business, people benefit from Stoicism by identifying obstacles as __________ (39) .

Relevance of Stoicism

  • It requires a lot of __________ (40) but Stoicism can help people to lead a good life.
  • It teaches people that having a strong character is more important than anything else.

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READING SECTION

Questions 1–5

The animal that regrows its head

In a windowless lab at the University of Galway in Ireland, there’s a fish tank containing an extraordinary creature. Perched on blue cocktail sticks like lollipops, rows of seashells are coated in a strange “living hair”, buffeted by gently flowing seawater. This colony of tiny marine animals – known as “snail fur” – was harvested in Irish rockpools off the backs of hermit crabs, and is related to jellyfish, corals and sea anemones.

Each no bigger than a baby’s eyelash, they are called Hydractinia, and up close resemble a tree, each with a foot, a trunk and a tentacled head used for catching tasty passing detritus. They also have a superpower: when grazing fish frequently bite off those tentacle heads, they re-sprout to their former hirsute glory within a week.

It’s this talent that has captured the attention of Uri Frank and colleagues at Galway’s Regenerative Medicine Institute. Along with a growing number of researchers, he claims that the tissue regeneration seen in creatures like Hydractinia could be an ancient power possessed by most animals, including humans – it’s just dormant. So, how does this “snail fur” regrow itself? And could it hold the key to tissue regeneration in human beings too?

Many animals can regenerate body parts, from starfish to salamanders. But primitive snail fur is unusual, not least because its abilities are so extreme.

Marshalling stem cells

The key to Hydractinia’s regenerative talent is the fact that it retains its embryonic stem cells for life. This means that any wound healing process doesn’t just produce a scab and a scar but a whole new body part as it would in an embryo, even a head.

At a gathering of developmental biologists earlier this year, Frank showed a video of the creature’s head-budding process in action, embryonic stem cells that had been genetically altered to glow green rushing to the neck end of a headless Hydractinia. Attendees were agog. As one tweeted: “Uri Frank shows timelapse movie of Hydractinia stem cells physically moving across to head (wound site) – Wow!”

Since recording that video the Galway team have been working to understand how Hydractinia rebuilds its severed body and hope to publish their findings shortly in a scientific journal. While they’re keeping schtum about the details, the paper will focus on how the creature marshalls its stem cells to regrow its head – for example, how stem cells know the head’s missing – and where exactly the embryonic stem cells come from.

Studying Hydractinia has also led Frank and colleagues to ask a bigger question: why can only a few animals regenerate while most can’t? A salamander can regrow a lost tail but closely related frogs can’t regrow a lost limb. And if a tiny marine creature can regrow its own head, why can’t humans even regrow their adult teeth? After all, says Frank, it’s not as if human and Hydractinia stem cell systems are so very different.

Ancient ancestor

Key stem cell processes are ancient and common to many animal species. For instance, the complex “Wnt” signalling system, which controls stem cells in developing embryos and, when uncontrolled, causes cancer, is very similar in all animals, including Hydractinia and people. It’s one of a handful of complex stem cell systems, each involving hundreds of elements, which have remained the same since Hydractinia branched off the evolutionary tree that eventually led to us around 600 million years ago.

Over the past decade or so, researchers have started to believe that stem cells first evolved in a creature even more ancient than Hydractinia, whose soft body has long since dissolved in ancient seabeds. In this as-yet-unknown creature, the power of regeneration may have first evolved, says Frank, endowing all later animals with a basic toolkit for regrowing lost body parts – one which mainly lies dormant in present-day life.

“It’s maybe not such a crazy idea. Stem cell systems are enormously complex and 600 million years may not be long enough to reinvent another system from scratch. So it’s more likely to believe that our stem cell system and Hydractinia’s stem cell system were actually inherited from a common ancestor,” says Frank. “And if you think about it, Hydractinia can grow a new head and, although we cannot as adults, we can do that as embryos when we make our own head. So it is possible that this ability to do so is switched off in human adults and in Hydractinia it’s not.”

This theory ties in with a study published last year in the journal Nature, about two varieties of an ancient form of flatworm, the planarian. This worm has been studied for over a century because of its amazing regenerative powers. Slice them up into tiny pieces and some planarian worms can regrow their bodies from even the tiniest tailpiece. Others need most of their body intact to regrow a head. Until now, that is.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute tested the idea that all planarian flatworms have the same regenerative superpowers but that in some it’s switched off early in development. They were right. With a relatively simple tweak to the stem cell system of a developing embryo they turned a creature that in nature couldn’t regrow a head out of a tiny tailpiece, into one that could.

In Galway, Frank hopes his research will help to explain the apparently miraculous results from planarian experiments and unravel other mysteries, too. Why, for instance, do planarians easily grow new tails when Hydractinia struggles to regrow its foot? One idea is that body symmetry – front/back or left-right as in planarians and humans but not snail fur – may dictate where stem cells in the body can migrate to.

In theory, it’s possible that humans may harbour the same dormant regenerative superpowers as snail fur and flatworms, however far they seem from humans. At the most basic cellular level there are striking similarities. Studying them could teach us how to regrow damaged or lost body parts too. “While there’s no market for regrowing human heads,” says Frank, “wouldn’t it be great if we could repair spinal cords, damaged hearts, damaged kidneys, hands and any other organs we might lose?”

The flatworm studies imply this might not be quite as unthinkable as once thought. The Victorian father of regenerative science, Thomas Hunt Morgan carried out flatworm experiments showed their amazing powers to regrow a whole body from a stump in 1901. But he abandoned the study, writing: “We will never understand the phenomena of development and regeneration.”

Clearly, there are many mysteries of regeneration still to be revealed, yet now it seems that a tiny creature living in a fish tank in Galway and its ilk could help us unlock the bizarre process of regrowing body parts sooner than we thought.

Complete the sentences below.

Write ONLY ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Number your answers in the text box (e.g., 1. disease, 2. bacteria, and so on)

  1. “Wnt” signalling system can cause __________ if uncontrolled.
  2. Human and Hydractinia stem cells might actually be from a common __________ .
  3. The thing that dictates where stem cells in the body can migrate to might be body __________ .
  4. Humans might possibly harbour the same __________ regenerative superpowers as snail fur and flatworms.
  5. Thomas Hunt Morgan said that we will never understand the __________ of development and regeneration.

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Questions 6–10

In Awe of Bats

Paragraph A-Recently, conservationists in the UK developed a revolutionary wind tunnel designed to save the lives of injured bats. An extractor fan recreates their flying conditions and they regain their strength before being released back into the wild. In Brazil, biologist Rebecca Shapley uses high-tech computer technology and nets to capture and identify bat species in the vast Jau National Park. In Science View, she explains why scientists are in awe of bats and why conservation of these tiny mammals is essential. Bats comprise about one-fifth of all mammals. They come second to rodents in terms of population figures. But because they are active at night scientists find it difficult to work with them. Consequently, many species have never been studied and are excluded from surveys. At Jau National Park, in the north of Amazonas state, biologist Rebecca Shapley’s mission is to record the indigenous bat species. Through her research, she aims to create a comprehensive list as there is none to start with. Because bats comprise over half of all mammal species in tropical ecosystems, Shapley believes studying them is crucial to any conservation effort. She says: “You can’t really have a realistic understanding of a national park’s management plan, or make an impact, if you don’t have an understanding of bats…making a list of the bats in Jau National Park is a good beginning.”

Paragraph B-Different bat species play important roles in the ecological system they belong to. Importantly, they control the insect population. According to an Online report by the US Fish and Wildlife Service: “One bat can eat between 600 and 1,000 mosquitoes and other insect pests in just one hour.” Bats are also important seed dispersers. Some species disperse thousands of seeds in one night. When in flight, bats tend to drop seeds, often at great distances from the point of collection. In addition, their droppings or guano, an important fertiliser for crops, contain a large number of seeds, which are deposited during their travels. Fertilisation is yet another of their vital roles. They pollinate plants that can only be pollinated by them, such as The Saguaro Cactus. The Saguaro can live for several centuries but it only blossoms when it reaches 50 to 60 years of age. It opens its white flowers at night and closes them with the arrival of daylight. Long-nosed bats probe the blossoms in search of nectar. They then scatter the pollen adhered to their fur to hundreds of other flowers. Bats also pollinate thousands of tropical and subtropical trees. They help produce the peaches, bananas, mangoes and avocados human beings love to eat.

Paragraph C-In order to capture them, biologists tend to use two methods: a mist net and a harp net. Mist nets are fine vertical meshes, which are placed in the passages of forests. A harp net is a series of vertical strings with a sack at the bottom. It covers the entrance to the roost. Bats try to fly between the strings. Because they have no room to beat their wings, they fall down into the pouch. To make her list of bat species, Shapley uses 3 to 12 metre tall mist nets. When bats forage, capture tends to be successful. But some bats avoid this device through echo-location – by sending out a high-frequency call which bounces back offering a three-dimensional image of their pathway. For these clever bats, a harp trap is required. Shapley explains: “It’s very much like a harp, except it’s square and not very musical. Bats see it, but think they can get out of it. In the middle of it they realise they can’t. They fall down into a little sack, which gives them some protection. They roost there until you come and identify them.” Until recently, biologists considered some species to be extremely rare but new studies suggest perhaps some species are simply more cunning than rare.

Paragraph D-There is one research tool that has little to do with traditional nets used by scientists. It’s the Anabat electronic computer used to record bat echolocation calls. In layman’s terms, the system takes a voice print of the bat as it flies past. It records calls and stores them as computer files. Shapley explains: “I can sit in this research station, and use this to record the bats that are echolocating around me. We still have to catch the bat. Just having the call is not enough. You have to know whose making that call.” After recording the voice prints, Shapley matches the call with the recorded sounds of other species stored in the Anabat’s archive and in bat research libraries.

Paragraph E-So far, Shapley has identified 28 species and more are sure to pop up. One is the fruit-eating Carollia perspicillata, which shuffles between trees in the forest to roost. She has also caught a family of three very rare fish-eating bats, adding their sound to the Anabat’s archive.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A–E from the list of headings. Write the correct number in the text box, respectively.

  1. Paragraph A _____
  2. Paragraph B _____
  3. Paragraph C _____
  4. Paragraph D _____
  5. Paragraph E _____
  1. Bat List
  2. Bat Voice Prints
  3. A Kind Trap
  4. Dispersers and Pollinators
  5. Back to Basics
  6. A Scientist at Work
  7. Shy Night-Timers

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Questions 11–15 

All The Ways Women Are Still Pressured to Put Family Before Career

There’s no denying that women around the world have made great strides toward equality in the past century. One hundred years ago, women in the United States still didn’t have the right to vote, and very few were allowed to pursue higher education or a meaningful career outside of their household duties. Fast forward to today, and more than 70 percent of women between the ages of 20 and 54 are active members of the national workforce. On top of this, 2015 marked the first year when women were, on average, more likely to have a bachelor’s degree than men, and this trend is on the rise.

But despite all this newfound opportunity, the prevailing societal attitudes about what women are historically supposed to value still have a long way to go. That’s why we’ve partnered with SK-II to learn more about all of the ways women are still pressured to stick to outdated gender norms. “Women have won unprecedented rights thanks to the feminist movement, but as a society, we still expect women to prioritize family over career, or even over their own needs,” says Silvia Dutchevici, president and founder of the Critical Therapy Center in New York City. Dutchevici says many women feel pressure to “have it all,” meaning both a thriving career and the perfect family, but that can be very difficult to achieve.

“Most women try to balance work and family,” Dutchevici says, “but that balance is seldom equal.” In fact, she says working mothers ― even those with partners ― often find themselves essentially working two full-time jobs: keeping their career together while doing the brunt of housework, cooking and child-rearing. This happens for a variety of reasons, but societal expectations about the roles of women and men at home are still very much to blame, says Tamra Lashchyk, a Wall Street executive, business coach and author of the book “Lose the Gum: A Survival Guide to Women on Wall Street.”

“No matter how successful she is, the burden of running a household still falls on the woman’s shoulders,” Lashchyk says. “Men get more of a pass when it comes to these duties, especially those that involve children.” Lashchyk says much of this pressure on women to conform to a more domestic lifestyle comes from friends and family.

“In many people’s minds, a woman’s career success pales in comparison to having a family,” she says. “Especially if the woman is single, no matter how great her professional achievements, almost every single one of her conversations with her family will include questions about her romantic life or lack thereof. I could literally tell my family I’d cured cancer and the conversation would still end with, ‘But are you dating anyone?’” While covert societal expectations might contribute to some of this inequality, workplace policies on maternity and paternity leave can hold a lot of the blame.

“Unfortunately, many workplace policies regarding taking time off to care for family do not the changing times,” Dutchevici says. “Both men and women suffer in their careers when they prioritize family, but women carry far harsher punishments. Their choice to take time off and start a family can result in lower pay, and fewer promotions in the future. The right to family leave is not a woman’s issue, it is a society’s issue, a family’s issue.” Lashchyk agrees with this sentiment. “There should be more flexibility and benefits [in the workplace], like longer periods of time for paternity leave … .” If paternity leave was extended, men could share a greater responsibility in child care, and they could also spend more time bonding with their infant children, which is beneficial for the entire family.

Another less visible way the modern workplace forces women to choose family over career has to do with the fact that women are pushing back pregnancy, says Jeni Mayorskaya, a fertility expert and CEO of Stork Club, an online community for women dedicated to fertility issues. “Compared to our parents, our generation is having children a decade later,” Mayorskaya says. “Unfortunately, when we hit our mid-30s and we’re finally ready for that managing position or that title of a partner at a firm we fought so hard for, we have to think about putting our career on pause and becoming a mom.”

So what can women do to combat these societal pressures? Finding workplaces that offer flexible schedules, work-at-home opportunities and ample maternity and paternity leave is a good first step, but Dr. Neeta Bhushan, an emotional intelligence advocate and author, says women should also learn to put themselves first. “The first step is being mindful of your emotional health in your relationships with others and the relationship you have with yourself, “Bhushan says. “When you put yourself first, you are able to make a bigger impact on your community. This is different than being selfish ― think beyond you. You want to make sure that you are being taken care of so that you can take care of others.”

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

11. One hundred years ago, women in USA

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12. According to Silvia Dutchevici,

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13. Tamra Lashchyk, a Wall Street executive, says that

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14. Lashchyk agrees with Dutchevici on

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15. Jeni Mayorskaya says that

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Questions 16–20

Social Housing in Britain

During the past 20 years in Britain there has been a significant decrease in the number of social homes in the housing stock, down from 5.3m to 4.8m. The proportion of social housing has fallen from 29% to 18% during the same period. This is largely due to the policies of Margaret Thatcher’s government during the 1980’s which forced local councils to sell homes under market price to existing tenants under a ‘right to buy’ scheme and prevented them from building new houses. New social homes were then to be paid for by central government and managed by local housing associations.

Next month, the government is expected to announce a significant increase in the Social Housing Department’s £1.7 billion annual budget and also intends to make the application process for social housing simpler. The additional £2 billion will build about 50,000 new houses each year at current building costs. Still more houses could be built if subsidies were reduced.

The UK government is hoping that the extra investment will improve the housing situation. Britain with her increasing population builds fewer new houses than are needed, with a shortfall of 100,000 a year according to Shelter, a housing charity. The result is a boom in house prices that has made owning a home unaffordable for many, especially in London and the south of England. Key public sector workers, such as nurses and teachers, are among those affected.

In order to increase the social housing stock the government is using a process known as planning gain. Town councils are increasing the amount of social housing developers must build as part of a new building project and which they must give to the local housing association. Even without the financial support of central the government, some local councils in England are using planning gain to increase the proportion of social housing stock. In expensive Cambridge, the council wants 25% of new housing to be social; the figure is 35% in Bristol, while Manchester is planning 40% over the next twenty years.

Will this housing policy create new sink estates? Hopefully, not. Housing planners have learnt from the mistakes of the 1960s and 1970s when large council housing estates were constructed. Builders have got better at design and planning mixed-use developments where social housing is mixed with, and indistinguishable from, private housing. Social housing developments are winning design awards – a project in London won the Housing Design Award — though it is true that some council estates that now illustrate some of the worst aspects of 1960s architecture won awards at the time.

The management of social housing stock has largely moved from local councils to housing associations. Housing associations look after the maintenance of the existing housing stock, getting repairs done and dealing with problems like prostitution and drugs while employing estate security and on-site maintenance staff. One significant change is that planners have learned to build smaller housing developments.

The significant drawback of social housing still remains: it discourages mobility. What happens to the nurse who lives in cheap social housing in one town, and is offered a job in a region that does not provide her with new social housing? The government wants to encourage initiative but is providing a housing system that makes it difficult for people to change their lives. Public-sector workers are increasingly being priced out of London and other expensive parts of the country and, as a result, are unable to take advantage of opportunities available to them.

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage? Write the answers with the number (e.g., 1. TRUE, 2. FALSE, and so on)

Write:

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

16. During the Thatcher years, there was a block on building social homes.

17. The housing problem in London is worse than in the rest of south-east England.

18. Local authorities are starting to depend on the ‘planning gain’ scheme.

19. One way to make social housing more successful is to make it similar to private housing.

20. Local councils are unable to deal with crimes committed on social housing land.

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Twisted Light

Why is your mobile phone or wireless signal so slow? If you ask your service provider, they’ll tell you that it’s the bandwidth. We’re running out of signal space on the wireless spectrum. All wireless communications travel through radio or optical frequencies: your TV or radio programmes, your GPS device that helps you find your way, your mobile and smartphone, laptop and wirelessly connected PC. The demands from users and industry on a limited resource, the wireless spectrum, are growing daily and are closely regulated. The reason is that two users cannot use the same signal: think about radio stations, which have to operate on different frequencies otherwise they cause interference with each other. Likewise mobile phone operators cannot transit over the same frequency in the same market at the same time. Government-controlled agencies grant licences to use the wireless spectrum but if a wireless company wants to add more spectrum to its service to boost its capacity, it’s likely to be disappointed as there isn’t much more available. What is needed is a way of pushing more data through the same amount of bandwidth.

Now scientists may have found a way of manipulating light waves to carry more information: potentially enough for users to be able to download a film onto a smartphone in a single second. By twisting light waves, scientists could possibly transmit data at speeds of 2.56 terrabits per second: that’s 85,000 times faster than the 30 megabits per second currently possible. To put it another way, this is the same as transmitting 70 DVDs through the air in about a second. Researchers based in America, China, Israel and Pakistan have built on previous research from Sweden, which negates the need for more bandwidth by making better use of the spectrum. The basis of the research is to manipulate the properties of light.

One property of light is wavelength: lasers, radio waves, microwaves are simply different wavelengths of light. Light is made up of photons and photons have two other properties that define a beam of light: spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum. A good way of thinking about how photons travel is to think of the orbit of a planet: it spins around on its axis (spin angular momentum), and at the same time the planet is also revolving around the sun (orbital angular momentum). The latter force means that light can be twisted around its axis of travel to take the shape of a spiral or a corkscrew. At the centre of the spiral the light waves cancel each other out, leaving darkness in the middle, called an optical vortex. When light travels, it is formed into a spiral shape and it can be manipulated. There are infinite possibilities for ways in which the photon can be made to spiral: clockwise, counterclockwise, tight spirals or loose ones. Each of these spiral states can be uniquely identified but, more importantly for wireless communication, the spirals can be wrapped up within each other — or multiplexed — into a single beam. The beam can be transmitted and unwound at the receiving end to get the data streams back out again, essentially doubling or trebling or even quadrupling the bandwidth.

Scientists have been twisting light since the 1970s, and the spin angular momentum of waves is already manipulated in standard wireless communication. For years, Bo Thide of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics theorised that the orbital angular momentum could be used to create the spiral signal or as Thiele calls it a ‘radio vortex’. Then in an experiment in Venice, his team transmitted two signals simultaneously on the same frequency over a distance of 442 metres. Following on from this, researchers in America, China, Israel and Pakistan, led by Alan Wilner, twisted together eight light data streams, each stream with its own level of orbital angular momentum twist. One of the streams was transmitted as a thin stream while the others were transmitted around the outside. The data beam was then sent to a receiver and untwisted to recover the data.

The achievement is very exciting for developers of wireless network technology as the useful spectrum of frequencies is largely used up. The orbital angular momentum model would allow for an infinite number of data transmissons without taking up any more of the spectrum. There is a problem, however: researchers can only transmit the data stream one metre, which is an insignificant distance for communication purposes. The short transmission range is due to turbulence in the atmosphere, which disrupts the signal as the light hits air molecules. But the scientists are planning to be able to send the beam considerably further. One idea is to create links every kilometre to extend the network. Another is to build high-speed satellite communication links where the atmospheric problems would not affect the signal. Another possibility is to adapt the technology for fibre-optic use, the way data is currently transmitted over the Internet. Unfortunately, at this point standard fibre-optic cables are not capable of carrying multichannel signals and fibre-optic cables that can carry the signal experience problems of interference between channels as they carry data with high bit-rates.

Nevertheless, exploiting the orbital angular momentum gives scientists options that could lead to significant increases in data transfer; even a modest increase in the existing data transfer rate is worthwhile. Furthermore, very often technology is pulled along by innovative research so a novel solution to carrying the data-rich signal may not be far behind.

Complete the summary using the list of words.

bandwidth

fibre-optic

multiplexing

spirals

novel

atmospheric interference

light waves

wireless spectrum

data steams

 

 

 

 

 

Researchers are looking for a way of using the __________ (21) more efficiently. One option is to transmit signals that are twisted into __________ (22) and wrapping them together, or __________ (23) them. This is still problematic on earth due to __________ (24) but scientists hope that __________ (25) cable technology will catch up with the research breakthrough.

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Questions 26–30

Education Industry Revving Up

A recent newspaper investigation into the growing number of foreign fee-paying students raises some issues for timely reflection. To be blunt, we need to prepare ourselves for a sudden and major increase in population. This new population will not be permanent but it will continue to increase in numbers and make itself at home in New Zealand for the main purpose of intellectual advancement. It will, in effect, be a rotating population but one that produces an increase in the total population at any one time. 

If you think, as even some Asian students do, that Auckland is already too Asian (one in eight Aucklanders is now Asian), be prepared for it becoming too European or too South American. Our booming education industry still catches some locals by surprise and, depending on your point of view about racial diversity, it may or may not be of comfort to know that it has only just begun.

The only limitations to its growth will be the decisions and behaviour of organizations serving these students from overseas who want to study here – whether it is English language or IT skills. And I do not mean just the education function itself: it includes health, transport, property and entertainment. The list increases into all aspects of society as more students arrive from the major continents.

My own company has grown 500 per cent in the past four years and our board is anticipating an even higher rate over the next five years. I see no reason we should consider industry growth expectations below this. Early next month we will open a new international language school in Queen St designed to give students internationally accredited English language skills so they can stay longer and study IT courses. Some will go on to our universities.

This one new school alone will inject an extra $60 million-odd annually into Auckland’s economy. What does this industry growth mean? It could mean a $10 billion (contribution to gross domestic product) industry by the end of this decade, employing 100,000 New Zealanders directly and many more indirectly.

The conditions which have created this opportunity are many, but underlying them all are the standards which shape education in this country. Some will argue that whimsical circumstances, such as a favourable exchange rate or our distance from the troubled areas of the world, have caused it all. But without the right internationally recognised education standards we would have no such booming industry. 

Make no mistake, this is our trump card. As long as we are known for quality education we can develop what we have started regardless of almost any other change of circumstance. Undoubtedly, there are financial benefits for society. But we would be blind not to acknowledge and address the many other implications which the newspaper article began to identify.

The growth opportunity is so good that we must effectively evolve as an industry and fast, too. We must eliminate the clumsy, experimental mistake-ridden phase of youth. Fundamentally we must leap from childhood to maturity.

But how? Experiences in my company lead me to suggest three main areas to address – total service, performance regulation and long-term planning. By total service I mean accepting some responsibility for students inside and outside of campus. Within two years, my company expects at least 1000 overseas students to be studying at all our six campuses. We must take some responsibility for this size of customer base, as any normal company would.

This means we must attract other suppliers as dedicated partners with us – property, insurance, healthcare, transport, social support, the list goes on. Education New Zealand has a valuable role here.

This type of care begins in the students’ home country, ensuring they have correct information about our country and how different it will be in many small and large ways. Our company, intent on achieving this, is introducing marketing programmes in three continents. Performance regulation will be vital in our leap to adulthood. We cannot leave it up to the Government; it will mean a private sector-Government partnership. 

I am also not surprised to hear calls for the Government to introduce an industry levy – frankly, just another tax – to “protect” standards. We should keep in mind that foreign students are happy to come here because of our stable Government, virtually non-existent corruption, and education standards. For the Government to come to our support with an extra levy imposition reminds me of an old saying: When a sufficient number of management layers are superimposed on top of each other, it can be assured that disaster is not left to chance. 

Long-term planning usually begins with a vision agreed by the industry and I will support any immediate efforts in this area. We now have an industry that is arguably our country’s third largest export earner. We need to know where we can take this industry, how it fits with society and its place in an increasingly systemic world where people move more freely and technology drives a global economy.

Answer the following questions in NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS. Write your answers in three words 

26. Where should the type of care the writer discusses initially come from?

27. What will be very important in the education sector’s rise to maturity?

28. What does the government want to bring in?

29. What does the ongoing preparation usually start with?

30. How big an export industry is English language teaching?

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Questions 31–35 

The Dover Bronze-Age Boat

It was 1992. In England, workmen were building a new road through the heart of Dover, to connect the ancient port and the Channel Tunnel, which, when it opened just two years later, was to be the first land link between Britain and Europe for over 10,000 years. A small team from the Canterbury Archaeological Trust (CAT) worked alongside the workmen, recording new discoveries bought to light by the machines.

At the base of the deep shaft six meters below the modern streets, a wooden structure was revealed. Cleaning away the waterlogged site overlying the timbers, archaeologists realized its true nature. They had found a prehistoric boat, preserved by the type of sediment in which it was buried. It was then named by Dover Bronze- Age Boat.

About nine meters of the boat’s length was recovered; one end lay beyond the excavation and had to be left. What survived consisted essentially of four intricately carved oak planks: two on the bottom, joined along a central seam by a complicated system of wedges and stitched to the others. The seams had been made watertight by pads of moss, fixed by wedges and yew stitches.

The timbers that closed the recovered end of the boat had been removed in antiquity when it was abandoned, but much about its original shape could be deduced. There was also evidence for missing upper side planks. The boat was not a wreck, but had been deliberately discarded, dismantled and broken. Perhaps it had been “ritually killed” at the end of its life, like other Bronze-Age objects.

With hindsight, it was significant that the boat was found and studied by mainstream archaeologists who naturally focused on its cultural context. At the time, ancient boats were often considered only from a narrower technological perspective, but news about the Dover boat reached a broad audience. In 2002, on the tenth anniversary of the discovery, the Dover Bronze-Age Boat Trust hosted a conference, where this meeting of different traditions became apparent. Alongside technical papers about the boat, other speakers explored its social and economic contexts, and the religious perceptions of boats in Bronze- Age societies. Many speakers came from overseas, and debate about cultural connections was renewed.

Within seven years of excavation, the Dover boat had been conserved and displayed, but it was apparent that there were issues that could not be resolved simply by studying the old wood. Experimental archaeology seemed to be the solution: a boat reconstruction, half-scale or full-sized, would permit assessment of the different hypotheses regarding its build and the missing end. The possibility of returning to Dover to search for a boat’s unexcavated northern end was explored, but practical and financial difficulties were insurmountable- and there was no guarantee that the timbers had survived the previous decade in the changed environment.

Detailed proposals to reconstruct the boat were drawn up in 2004. Archaeological evidence was beginning to suggest a Bronze- Age community straddling the Channel, brought together by the sea, rather than separated by it. In a region today divided by languages and borders, archaeologists had a duty to inform the general public about their common cultural heritage.

The boat project began in England but it was conceived from the start as a European collaboration. Reconstruction was only part of a scheme that would include a major exhibition and an extensive educational and outreach programme. Discussions began early in 2005 with archaeological bodies, universities and heritage organizations either side of the Channel. There was much enthusiasm and support, and an official launch of the project was held at an international seminar in France in 2007. Financial support was confirmed in 2008 and the project then named BOAT 1550BC got under way in June 2011.

A small team began to make the boat at the start of 2012 on the Roman Lawn outside Dover Museum. A full- scale reconstruction of a mid-section had been made in 1996, primarily to see how Bronze- Age replica tools performed. In 2012, however, the hull shape was at the centre of the work, so modern power tools were used to carve the oak planks, before turning to prehistoric tools for finishing. It was decided to make the replica haft-scale for reasons of cost and time, any synthetic materials were used for the stitching, owing to doubts about the scaling and tight timetable.

Meanwhile, the exhibition was being prepared ready for opening in July 2012 at the Castle Museum in Boulogne-sur-Mer. Entitled ‘Beyond the Horizon: Societies of the Channel & North Sea 3,500 years ago’ it brought together for the first time a remarkable collection of Bronze- Age objects, including many new discoveries for commercial archaeology and some of the great treasure of the past. The reconstructed boat, as a symbol of the maritime connections that bound together the communities either side of the Channel, was the centrepiece.

Complete the diagram. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers with the number (e.g., 1. ancient, 2. old, and so on)

1992 The boat was discovered during the construction of a __________ (31)

2002 An International __________ (32) was held to gather information

2004 __________ (33) for the reconstruction were produced

2007 The __________ (34) of BOAT 1550BC took place

2012 The Bronze-Age __________ (35) featured the boat and other objects

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Questions 36–40 

The Rise of Agribots

The next time you stand at the supermarket checkout, spare a thought for the farmers who helped fill your shopping basket as life is hard for them right now. This, in turn, inevitably means bigger grocery bills for consumers, and greater hardship for the millions in countries where food shortages are a matter of life and death. Worse, studies suggest that the world will need twice as much food by 2050. Yet while farmers must squeeze more out of the land, they must also address the necessity of reducing their impact on the soil, waterways and atmosphere. All this means rethinking how agriculture is practiced, and taking automation to a whole new level. On the new model farms of the future, precision will be key. Why does a whole field with chemicals if you can spray only where they are needed? Each plant could get exactly the right amount of everything, no more or less, an approach that could slash chemical use and improve yields in one move. But this is easier said than done; the largest farms in Europe and the U.S. can cover thousands of acres. That’s why automation is key to precision farming. Specifically, say agricultural engineers, precision farming needs robot farmers.

One day, we might see fields with ‘agribots’ (agricultural robots) that can identify individual seedlings and encourage them along with drops of fertilizer. Other machines would distinguish problem weeds from crops and eliminate them with shots from high-power lasers or a microdot of pesticide. These machines will also be able to identify and harvest all kinds of vegetables. More than a century of mechanization has already turned farming into an industrial-scale activity in much of the world, with farms that grow cereals being the most heavily automated. 

But a variety of other crops, including oranges and tomatoes destined to become processed foods, are also picked mechanically, albeit to a slightly lesser extent. Yet the next wave of autonomous farm machinery is already at work. You probably haven’t even noticed, for these robots are disguised as tractors. Many are self-steering, use GPS to cross a field, and can even ‘talk’ to their implements – a plough or sprayer, for example. And the implements can talk back, telling the tractor that it’s going too fast or needs to move to the left. This kind of communication is also being developed in other farm vehicles. A new system allows a combine harvester, say, to send a call over to a tractor- trailer so the driver can unload the grain as and when necessary.

However, when fully autonomous systems take to the field, they’ll look nothing like tractors. With their enormous size and weight, today’s farm machines have significant downsides: they compact the soil, reducing porosity and killing beneficial life, meaning crops don’t grow so well. Simon Blackmore, who researches agricultural technology at Harper Adams University College in England believes that fleets of lightweight autonomous robots have the potential to solve this problem and that replacing brute force with precision is key. ‘A seed only needs one cubic centimeter of soil to grow. If we cultivate just that we only put tiny amounts of energy in and the plants still grow nicely.’ There is another reason why automation may be the way forward according to Eldert van Henten, a robotics researcher at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. ‘While the population is growing and needs to be fed, a rapidly shrinking number of people are willing to work in agriculture,’ he points out. Other researchers such as Linda Calvin, an economist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Philip Martin at the University of California, Davis, have studied trends in mechanization to predict how US farms might fare. Calvin and Martin have observed how rising employment costs have led to the adoption of labour-saving farm technology in the past, citing the raisin industry as an example. In 2000, a bumper harvest crashed prices and, with profits squeezed, farmers looked for a solution. With labour one of their biggest costs – 42 percent of production expenses on U.S. farms, on average – they started using a mechanical harvester adapted from a machine used by wine makers. By 2007, almost half of California’s raisins were mechanically harvested and a labour force once numbering 50,000 had shrunk to 30,000. 

As well as having an impact on the job market, the widespread adoption of agribots might bring changes at the supermarket. Lewis Holloway, who studies agriculture at the University of Hull, UK, says that robotic milking is likely to influence the genetics of dairy herds as farmers opt for ‘robot-friendly’ cows, with udder shape, and even attitudes, suited to automated milking. Similarly, he says, it’s conceivable that agribots could influence what fruit or vegetable varieties get to the shops, since farmers may prefer to grow those with, say, leaf shapes that are easier for their robots to discriminate from weeds. Almost inevitably, these machines will eventually alter the landscape, too. The real tipping point for robot agriculture will come when farms are being designed with agribots in mind, says Salah Sukkarieh, a robotics researcher at the Australian Center for Field Robotics, Sydney. This could mean a return to smaller fields, with crops planted in grids rather than rows and fruit trees pruned into two-dimensional shapes to make harvesting easier. This alien terrain tended by robots is still a while away, he says ‘but it will happen.’

Math each researcher with the correct statement. Write your answers in the text box according to the number (e.g., 1. A, 2. B, and so on)

ResearcherStatement
36. Simon Blackmore _____

37. Eldert van Henten _____

38. Linda Calvin and Philip Martin _____

39. Lewis Holloway _____

40. Salah Sukkarieh _____

A. The use of automation might impact on the development of particular animal and plant species.

B. We need to consider the effect on employment that increased automation will have.

C. We need machines of the future to be exact, not more powerful.

D. As farming becomes more automated the appearance of farmland will change.

E. New machinery may require more investment than certain farmers can afford.

F. There is a shortage of employees in the farming industry.

G. There are limits to the environmental benefits of automation.

H. Economic factors are often the driving force behind the development of machinery

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WRITING SECTION

WRITING TASK 1

The bar chart below shows the hours per week that teenagers spend doing certain activities in Chester from 2002 to 2007. Summarize the information in at least 150 words by selecting and reporting the main features, and making comparisons where relevant.

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WRITING TASK 2

Some people advocate the death penalty for those who commit violent crimes. Others say that capital punishment is unacceptable in contemporary society. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the death penalty and give your opinion in at least 250 words.

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SPEAKING SECTION

PART 1

In this part, you will introduce yourself and ask several questions from the interviewer. Click ‘Play’ to listen to each speaking question. Please use Online Voice Recorder after the beep sound to record your answer. Start the recording at the beginning of the speaking test while you play the audio and answer it subsequently. DO NOT STOP the recording until the speaking is finished. Save the recording once you’ve done with the Speaking Part 1. Then, upload it to our Google Drive folder. Mark ‘DONE’ IN THE TEXT BOX below.

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Once you’ve done with the Speaking Part 1, upload it to our Google Drive folder. Mark ‘DONE’ IN THE TEXT BOX below.

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PART 2

In this part, you will introduce yourself and ask several questions from the interviewer. Click ‘Play’ to listen to each speaking question. Please use Online Voice Recorder after the beep sound to record your answer. Start the recording at the beginning of the speaking test while you play the audio and answer it subsequently. DO NOT STOP the recording until the speaking is finished. Save the audio recording once you’ve done with the Speaking Part 2. Then, upload it to our Google Drive folder. Mark ‘DONE’ IN THE TEXT BOX below.

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Once you’ve done with the Speaking Part 1, upload it to our Google Drive folder. Mark ‘DONE’ IN THE TEXT BOX below.

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PART 3

In this part, you will introduce yourself and ask several questions from the interviewer. Click ‘Play’ to listen to each speaking question. Please use Online Voice Recorder after the beep sound to record your answer. Start the recording at the beginning of the speaking test while you play the audio and answer it subsequently. DO NOT STOP the recording until the speaking is finished. Save the audio recording once you’ve done with the Speaking Part 3. Then, upload it to our Google Drive folder. Mark ‘DONE’ IN THE TEXT BOX below.

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Click ‘Play’ to listen to the audio

Once you’ve done with the Speaking Part 1, upload it to our Google Drive folder. Mark ‘DONE’ IN THE TEXT BOX below.

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